Inhalants

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Inhalants

     Inhalants are breathable chemical vapors that produce psychoactive (mind-altering) effects.   Although people are exposed to volatile solvents and other inhalants in the home and in the workplace, many do not think of inhalable substances as drugs because most of them were never meant to be used in that way.

   Young people are likely to abuse inhalants, in part because inhalants are readily available and inexpensive. Sometimes children unintentionally misuse inhalant products that are found in household products. Parents should see that these substances are monitored closely so that they are not inhaled by young children.

   Inhalants fall into the following categories:

        Solvents

             industrial or household solvents or solvent-containing products, including paint thinners or solvents, degreasers (dry-cleaning fluids), gasoline, and glues art or office supply solvents, including correction fluids, felt-tip-marker fluid, and  electronic contact cleaners         

        Gases

             gases used in household or commer cial products, including butane lighters and propane tanks, whipping cream aerosols or dispensers (whippets), and refrigerant gases  household aerosol propellants and as sociated solvents in items such as spray paints, hair or deodorant sprays, and fabric protector sprays medical anesthetic gases, such as ether, chloroform, halothane, and nitrous oxide (laughing gas)              

        Nitrites

             aliphatic nitrites, including cyclohexyl nitrite, which is available to the general public; amyl nitrite, which is available only by prescription; and butyl nitrite, which is now an illegal substance.

 

   Health Hazards

   Although different in makeup, nearly all abused inhalants produce effects similar to anesthetics which act to slow down the body's functions. When inhaled via the nose or mouth into the lungs in sufficient concentrations, inhalants can cause intoxicating effects. Intoxication can last only a few minutes or several hours if inhalants are taken repeatedly. Initially, users may feel slightly stimulated; with successive inhalations, they may feel less inhibited and less in control; finally, a user can lose consciousness.

   Sniffing highly concentrated amounts of the chemicals in solvents or aerosol sprays can directly induce heart failure and death. This is especially common from the abuse of fluorocarbons and butane-type gases. High concentrations of inhalants also cause death from suffocation by displacing oxygen in the lungs and then in the central nervous system so that breathing ceases. Other irreversible effects caused by inhaling specific solvents are as follows:

        Hearing loss - toluene (paint sprays, glues, dewaxers) and trichloroethylene (cleaning fluids, correction fluids)

        Peripheral neuropathies or limb spasms

        Central nervous system or brain damage - toluene (paint sprays, glues, dewaxers)

        Bone marrow damage - benzene (gasoline).

   Serious but potentially reversible effects include:

        Liver and kidney damage - toluene- containing substances and chlorinated hydrocarbons (correction fluids, dry- cleaning fluids)

        Blood oxygen depletion - organic nitrites ("poppers," "bold," and "rush") and methylene  chloride (varnish removers, paint thinners).

   Death from inhalants usually is caused by a very high concentration of fumes. Deliberately inhaling from an attached paper or plastic bag or in a closed area greatly increases the chances of suffocation. Even when using aerosols or volatile products for their legitimate purposes (i.e., painting, cleaning), it is wise to do so in a well-ventilated room or outdoors.

   Amyl and butyl nitrites have been associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most common cancer reported among AIDS patients. Early studies of KS showed that many people with KS had used volatile nitrites. Researchers are continuing to explore the hypothesis of nitrites as a factor contributing to the development of KS in HIV-infected people.  

 

 

 



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