Ecstasy, Herbal Ecstasy, Rohypnol, GHB, and Ketamine are among the
drugs used by teens andt those who do may be attracted to the generally low
cost, seemingly increased
who are part of a nightclub, bar, rave, or trance scene. Raves and
trance events are
generally night-long dances, often held in warehouses. Many who
attend raves and trances do not
use drugs, bu
stamina, and intoxicating highs that are said to deepen the rave or
trance experience. Recent hard
science, however, is showing serious damage to several parts of the
brain from use of these drugs.
Many users tend to experiment with a variety of club drugs in combination. Also,
any of these drugs with alcohol can lead to unexpected adverse
reactions and death.
Club drugs are an increasing challenge for treatment
programs. Many teens and young adults enter
treatment with a number of these drugs and alcohol, rather than a single drug,
as their primary
Club drug use appears to be increasing in many cities
around the country,* with Atlanta, Seattle,
Chicago, Detroit, Miami, and Newark reporting widespread use at
rave and club scenes. A recently
completed survey in the Seattle area found that 20 percent of
young, gay men reported using
Ecstasy. GHB is the drug of choice among white, gay males in New
Orleans' French Quarter and is
popular among high school and college students. Ecstasy
MDMA, called "Adam," "Ecstasy," or "XTC,"
on the street, is a synthetic, psychoactive drug with
hallucinogenic and amphetamine-like properties.
Many problems MDMA users encounter are similar to those
found with the use of amphetamines
and cocaine. Psychological difficulties can include confusion,
depression, sleep problems, severe
anxiety, and paranoia. Physical problems can include muscle
tension, involuntary teeth clenching,
nausea, blurred vision, faintness, and chills or sweating. Use of
the drug has also been associated
with increases in heart rate and blood pressure, a special risk for
people with circulatory or heart
disease. Recent research also links Ecstasy use to long-term damage
to those parts of the brain
critical to thought, memory, and pleasure.
Rohypnol, GHB, and Ketamine
Rohypnol, GHB, and Ketamine are predominantly central
nervous system depressants. Because
they are often colorless, tasteless, and odorless, they can be
easily added to beverages and ingested
unknowingly. These drugs have emerged as the so called "date
Because of concern about these abused
sedative-hypnotics, Congress passed the "Drug-Induced
Rape Prevention and Punishment Act of 1996" in October 1996. This
legislation increased Federal
penalties for use of any controlled substance to aid in sexual
Rohypnol, a trade name for flunitrazepam, has been of
particular concern for the last few years
because of its abuse in date rape. When mixed with alcohol,
Rohypnol can incapacitate a victim and
prevent them from resisting sexual assault. Also, Rohypnol may be
lethal when mixed with alcohol
and/or other depressants.
In addition to sedative-hypnotic effects including
muscle relaxation and amnesia, Rohypnol it can
produce physical and psychological dependence. In Miami - one of
the earliest sites of Rohypnol
abuse - poison control centers report an increase in withdrawal
seizures among people addicted to
Rohypnol is not approved for use in the United States
and its importation is banned. Illicit use of
Rohypnol began in Europe in the 1970s and started appearing in the
United States in the early
1990s, where it became known as "rophies," "roofies,"
"roach," and "rope."
Another very similar drug is now being sold as "roofies"
in Miami, Minnesota, and Texas. This is
clonazepam, marketed in the U.S. as Klonopin and in Mexico as
Rivotril. It is sometimes abused to
enhance the effects of heroin and other opiates. Based on emergency
room admission information,
Boston, San Francisco, Phoenix, and Seattle appear to have the
highest use rates of clonazepam.
Since about 1990, GHB (gamma hydroxy-butyrate) has been
abused in the U.S. for euphoric,
sedative, and anabolic (body building) effects. It is a central
nervous system depressant that was
widely available over-the-counter in health food stores during the
1980s, purchased largely by body
builders to aid fat reduction and muscle building. As with Rohypnol
and clonazepam, GHB has
been associated with sexual assault in cities throughout the
GHB has not been sold over-the-counter in the U.S.
since 1992. However products containing
gamma butyrolactone (GBL), a chemical that is converted by the body
into GHB, are used in a
number of dietary supplements in health food stores and gymnasiums.
Reports from Detroit indicate liquid GHB is being used
in nightclubs for effects similar to those of
Rohypnol. It is also common in the club scene in Phoenix, Honolulu,
and Texas, where it is known
as "liquid ecstacy," "somatomax,"
"scoop," "Georgia Home Boy," or "grievous bodily
Miami, poison control center calls have reflected problems
associated with increased GHB use,
including loss of consciousness. In New York City, there have been
reports of GHB use among
those in the fashion industry. GHB is one of the most popular
manufactured drugs in Atlanta. It is
available in some gyms and reputed to be widely accessible at some gay male
A Poison Control Center in Denver reports that in 1998,
33 calls involved GHB, and almost half of
these cases were considered life threatening. GHB accounts for an
increasing number of sexual
assault cases in Los Angeles and overdose deaths involving drug combinations.
Coma and seizures can occur following abuse of GHB and,
when combined with
methamphetamine, there appears to be an increased risk of seizure.
Combining use with other drugs
such as alcohol can result in nausea and difficulty breathing. GHB
may also produce withdrawal
effects, including insomnia, anxiety, tremors, and sweating.
Ketamine is another central nervous system depressant abused as a
"date rape" drug. Ketamine, or "Special K," is a rapid-acting general anaesthetic.
It has sedative-hypnotic, analgesic, and
hallucinogenic properties. It is marketed in the U.S. and a number
of foreign countries for use as a
general anesthetic in both human and veterinary medical practice.
It is similar to phencyclidine (PCP), although ketamine
has a more rapid onset and is less potent.
Depending on the dose, ketamine induces everything from feelings of
pleasant weightlessness to
full-fledged out-of-body or near-death experiences. Ketamine is
reportedly used as an alternative to
cocaine and is generally snorted.
Ketamine abuse has been reported in many cities around
the country. It has been reportedly stolen
from veterinary supply sources in Minnesota, Louisiana, and
Michigan. In Miami, ketamine has
been diverted from shipments intended for other countries. Ketamine
is widely available in New
York City where it sells for about $20 a dosage unit. A small but
stable market for ketamine has
been established in suburban areas outside Baltimore. Three
ketamine deaths were reported in New
Orleans in 1998, and the Detroit Poison Control Center reported six
ketamine contacts in early